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北京自考水平考试(二)写作要领和应试技巧

2014-10-09 07:19:42  来源:北京自考热线
 写作要领和技巧
1. 审题与构思
2. 展开段落
3.  修改定稿

l 基本要求
硬件要求
1)作文紧扣题目。
2)字数要够。
3)段落清晰,建议采用三段式结构。
4)卷面整洁,字迹清楚。
软件要求 1) 重点突出,简明扼要
2)文理通顺,前后连贯
3)合乎英语语法规范,写出正确的句子,诸如主谓一致,时态,语态,情态使用合理,关系代词或指示代词的遗志,从句的安排,以及标点符号的使用要恰当等。
4)要注意句型的多样化,有短句也有一些长句,有简单句也有复合句。不能通篇使用同一个主语或同一种句型。
例:The people enjoying the cool could be heard talking at times. Across the starless sky the lightning without thunder could be seen at times, and then, in the flash the trembling willows were visible. After the flash, all was in the pitch dark.
 Gradually, the people enjoying the cool dispersed and it could be seen that all round became quiet. Then a distant thunder could be heard and frogs stopped croaking as if frightened by the thunder. The wind rose again and the willow leaves could be seen resulting.
修改后:
 The voices of the people enjoying the cool came in snatches. From time to time a silent flash of lightning splashed the starless sky with a harsh blue glare and for one startled moment showed the weeping willows by the pond, drooping and trembling over the water. Then suddenly, darkness reigned again.
 Then, one by one, people who had enjoyed the cool air drifted away and silence closed in on all sides. A rumble of distant thunder seemed to frighten even the frogs into silence: a breeze sprang up again, rustling the leaves of the willows.
l 作文评分范例分析
 In our everyday life, we often meet some people who ask us for help. What shall we do?
 Of course, helping others is a virtue, but in some cases, we will have say “no”. For example, if what others want you to do is unreasonable or even illegal, you should say “no” without any hesitation. Everyone has his own principle of doing things, and we won’t do anything opposite to the right principle. If we did, it would do nothing but harm to both of us and others. In some cases, if the request from others is reasonable but beyond your ability, what you should do is just to say “no”. Never promise others what you can’t do. If you can’t keep your promise, you will be considered dishonest and it will do you no good when dealing with other people.
 In a word, if we don’t want to get into unnecessary trouble, just say “no” without any hesitation when it is quite necessary.
(18分)
 Most of us hope to create a friendly atmosphere with others, so it is important to help the other people when they need your help. But sometime, under some conditions it is more wise to say “no”. For example, if a friend of yours ask you to do a wrong thing, even to help him ot commit a crime, your best answer of course is “no”. We help each other if order to express our care and love to others., but first of all the principle of helping others is to do the right thing.
 Why some people fail to say “no” when they should .It is because of their lack of judgement of what is right and what is wrong of it is because that the wish of keeping friendly with others makes their judgement weak.
 If you fail to insist on your principle and say “yes” when you should say “no”. You will possibly do some wrong thing which will not lonely be bad for others but also bad for your self.
 So don’t fear to say “no” when the chance of saying it comes to you.
(15分)
Everyone may meet with the trouble. So we should help the others when they are unlucky. But, in some case we must say “no” to the one who turns to us for help. When someone wants us to do something harm to the others, we should say “no”
 But some people can’t say “no” when others ask them to do the wrong thing. The reason always is they are friends and they can’t refuse the friend’s require.
 But when they say “yes” to the people who wants the thing harm to the others. They also do mistakes themselves. They will meet with the sentences by people at the last. So when someone asks us to do the thing which is harm for the others, We should not hesitate to say “no”.
(12分)
When the others ask us help, we usually say “yes”. But when the others ask us to do some wrong thing, we must say “no”. Some people always say “yes”, perhaps they only sees the benefit before them and omits the bad results. There are lots of examples for this. Some people use Athey power give others ways and get money. At last, they are exposed and sentenced in court. It is a very large problem in our county.
 When we must say “no”, we shoudn’t hesistate to say no. So we can let others and ourself make little mistake. We can always has the right heart to face every body. If we hesitate to say no, the world will be worse and worse, filled with cheat and false. There will lack true and progress.
(8分)
When somebody ask for some help, we all give a hand to him. But, the thing what we forced or counter the rule we will say no.
What is the result of someone didn’t say no? what could day “no”? some people think say no will give anyone harm. When they ask for help, then anyone will not give them a hand.
Some people because of getting somehging. For example, money, good, or they will say yes and help someone.
What is the harm of hesistate to say no. You will getting the harm what you couldn’t think over. You help he who forced the rule, then you will connect with he. It is dangers to you. Don’t hesitate to say no. You will get something what is best.
(3分)

l 作文中易犯的典型错误
1. 逻辑混乱,言不及义
例1) The point of my essay will be to discuss the following points in more detail, and you all know, I’d like to tell you about such things as …here in my article.
例2) There is an old saying, “Where there is smoke there is fire.” This certainly proved true the other night when I saw smoke coming out from under the door of the next to mine. …
2. 主题思想不突出
3. 文章缺乏层次感和逻辑关系
4. 句子结构松散,前后逻辑不连贯
5. 句子结构残缺不全,或出现严重错误
6. 中国式英语
7. 句式缺少变化,语篇呆板乏味
8. 用词错误
1. He devoted his spare time in experimentation.
2. He subscribed over 20 kinds of newspaper, read a great number of books and made more than 20 thousand cards.
3. He visited all kinds of museums and exhibitions, and made friends of scientists, inventors...
1. Carefulness does great help of success.
2. The key of his success is that he accumulated lots of knowledge and experience.
3. He still persisted on writing science fictions...
4. Devotion means the concentration of our mind and effort in doing things.
5. Not being familiar to the professional knowledge of making a car, he went to an industrial college at the age of 28.
6. We needn’t to be the first one in our class or in our school...
7. First, you should join some action more firmly and insist your advice.
8. But it’s not enough that a person only has a desire of success.
9. TVs are very popular in China.
10. It is incredible to many people. Cigarette smokers spend money for illness.
11. I said I have more respect for him than his wife.
12. We couldn’t decide on a new car, there were many attractive models.
13. He was knocked down by a bicycle, but it was not serious.
14. To succeed in a scientific research project, persistence is needed.
15. Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed.
16. It was both a long ceremony and very tedious.
17. The distant explosion was audible to the ear.
18. There are four companies in Shanghai, and any of them can supply us with spare parts.
19. There are more and more people know the importance of good health.
20. Customers should realize to use law way protect themselves. (中式英语)
21. Opportunities can make people have less defeat or bring success. (不符合英语表达)
22. To find the needed information, Internet is a best and most effective way.
23. I have interest and regard for your work.
24. He is as strong as, if not stronger, than John.
25. He was clever, ambitious and had a sense of responsibility.
26. The cause of my failure was that I didn’t study hard.
27. She was eighteen when her hands were severely burned, which meant that she had to give up her goal of becoming a concert pianist. (When she was eighteen, her hands were severely burned. As a result, she had to give up her goal of becoming a concert pianist. )
28. Beijing has taken place great changes in recent years.
29. Because it was raining hard, so they stayed indoors the whole day.
30. I and my mother went to the supermarket this afternoon.
31. After the military training for several months, our bodies become very healthy.
35.He really has two down sons.
36.When other people are playing, you prefer to working for your goal.
37. We must consider the setbacks as the power of advancing.
38. She seeked a part-time job to support her housekeeping.
39. ...which make him a most brightest part in the school.
40. But this character leaded to his lots of creative ideas...
41. Only when we put our heart and soul into the job, we can do it well.
42. One should learn to fight with no matter what is left in his body and learn to stick to one’s own confidence and hope no matter how little it may be.
43. No matter you’re old or young, you’re a man or a woman...
44. Our products are more and more difficult to be sold out.
45. If there is more passion, you will have more imagination.
46. Keep up is what you always need.
▲I and my mother went to the supermarket this afternoon.
▲They save food and expenses to accumulate more funds for their son’s college tuition.
▲Some boy students in our class don’t study well. All day they talk love.
▲China is a country with an ancient civilization. She has a vast territory and covers an area of 9.6 ▲million square kilometers.

l 作文中有用的表达
Proverbs:
1. The course of reform is full of downs and ups.
2. Love me, love my dogs.
3. Never judge by appearance.
4. Prevention is better than cure.
5. Constant dropping will wear away a stone.
6. One tree does not make a wood.
7. Every coin has its two sides. (Everything cuts both ways.)
8. Bitter pills may have slight negligence may cause great disaster. (千里之堤,溃于蚁穴)
9. One cannot make bricks without straw.
10. Practise what you preach.
11. Facts speak louder than words.
12. Whatever gains in one respect loses in another.
   
l Types of Writing写作类型
5.1 descript ion (描写文)
人物描写    景物描写 物的描写 情景描写
A Polluted Environment
 Environmental pollution is a serious problem. It poses a terrible threat to man’s health.
 The atmosphere is filthy. The air is thick with dust and burnt oil. Dark smoker are being emitted from chimneys, and choking fumes are being released from numerous vehicles. Stay a little while in a big city, then wipe your forehead with your handkerchief, it is back. Hang out your washing in the line to dry, you will have to wash again. Garbage is left to accumulate in unsanitary heaps that attract flies and give off bad smell. Nor is the pollution confined to air and land. Large quantity of sewage and chemical waste are dropped daily into rivers. Lakes and the sea, which kills millions of fish. Noise pollution also causes a dreadful effect. Noises coming from honking cars, rumbling machines and broadcasting loud speakers may make a person nervous and irritable, even drive him crazy.
 Environmental pollution is responsible for many diseases that are disabling, or bring death to human beings.
A Hundred Years from Now   Our Capital –Peking   My Mother
5.2 narration (记叙文)
My Childhood
 I was born in a village, which was semicircular in shape, with a large sea in front, and many kinds of trees planted on all sides. About a mile from the left side of the village, there stood a seven storied pagoda, built more than a thousand years ago and about three hundred feet in height.
 In spring, some of my classmates and I always climbed up to the top of the pagoda to see the budding beautiful flowers.
 In summer, we spent most of the time in the forests, picking wild flowers and fruits to eat. I seldom went to swim because twice I nearly drowned myself.
 Autumn was the kite flying season. Every one of my pals went to the hill with me to fly kites during that season. Kite flying was not the only sport and cricket fighting was another popular one. We always went to all places to catch as many as crickets as we could. When we caught them, we brought them home and stored out the best ones. We took good care of them and trained them to be good fighters.
 In winter, though the weather was cold, we seldom stayed at home. We used to go to other places to engage in pebble-throwing battles. This battle was fought between two groups of boys had left a certain side, that side was defeated and they had to pay tribute to the winners.
 As time sped rapidly on, those childish habits or pastimes are only like an empty dream, and they will be a historical page of my life.
练习题目: An Outing  A Day in My Summer Vacation    My Wonderful Childhood   My Mother 
my hometown
5.3 exposition (说明文)
 
practice makes perfect
    As the saying goes, practice makes perfect. Whatever you do, you are certain to aim at perfection. But perfection lies in practice. Without practice, you can never expect to be really good at anything. On the contrary, the more you practice, the more likely you are to have thing perfectly done.
 The study of English is a case in point. If you are to improve your pronunciation, you must practice every sound again and again. If you want to write an excellent composition, you have to practice writing.
 Another example is Deng Yaping, the world No. 1 woman pingpang player. This short girl, who does not seem to be cut out for sports, Owes her success to painstaking and prolonged practice. Practice, so to speak, can even make a difference between merely good at something and becoming a champion.

5.4 argumentation (议论文)归纳与演绎  三段式
▲It is a fact of life that the development of science and technology has been accompanied by a decline in traditional culture. In my opinion, this is not necessarily a bad thing, because some aspects of traditional culture hamper progress and should be abandoned. Moreover, it is natural that people should want to find new ways of doing things.
 In the first place, science and technology have cleared up many matters that were mysterious to us in the past. For instance, we now know that thunder and lightening are not caused by gods being angry, but are normal natural phenomena. As a result, a large number of harmful superstition have disappeared, and nobody regrets their passing.
 In the second place, our everyday lives have been made more convenient by scientific and technological inventions. Nowadays electric lights have replaced the traditional oil lamps, and computers enable us to make quicker and more accurate calculations. Even more important is the fact that television brings the family together in the evening.
 In the third place, science and technology actually help to preserve the useful and pleasant parts of traditional culture. Take the celebration of the Chinese Lantern Festival for example. Lanterns are now designed with modern technology and materials to make them more attractive, and they are powered by electricity, which is safer than candles.
 Therefore, for the above reasons, I welcome the development of science and technology. Advances in science and technology have brought us many benefits. At the same time, they have eliminated the bad parts of traditional culture while preserving the good parts.
▲where to live –in the city or the country?
 Many people appreciate the conveniences of the city. People can enjoy a colorful life there. They are well-informed because they have the access to news. They are well-paid because they have stable jobs. They are well-fed and well-dressed because there is an adequate supply of goods. They often have a wonderful time because there are many places for recreation and relaxation.
 On the contrary, others are attracted by the country. They like clear streams, fresh air and high mountains. In the country, people feel close to nature—the very nature that gives man life.
 However, both the city and the country have their disadvantages. Air pollution is very serious in the city moreover it is too crowded that many people don’t want to go out. In the country it is inconvenient to buy things. Besides, people can find no way to kill the long and tedious nights.
 I prefer to live in the city for a time and then go to the country for a change.
▲ Every Tuesday and Friday evening sees Miss Li, my neighbor and a secretary in a company rush home after a hard day’s work, gulp down her meals and then hurry out to catch the bus for her English class. Miss Li’s case is not unique, and now more and more city adults spend their leisure time trying to improve themselves at school or college.
 There are a number of reasons for people to go back for their education. Some people , like Miss Li, are doing it to acquire another degree or diploma to impress the society. To them more knowledge, or rather, more credentials means more opportunities for better jobs and quicker promotion.
 Other people, especially those who are laid off or out of employment go to vocational school to prepare to return to the job market. They are eager for new skills so that they can be qualified for the jobs in retail trade, administration, education and other service categories to which they are strange because most of them were blue-collar workers in the factory. There are also people who come to take such courses as Chinese traditional medicine, painting, calligraphy and photography. As their working weeks decline people begin to have time to fulfill their old dream or their heart’s desire.
 Out of necessity or out of interest, people go back to school for the common goal –to improve themselves, and this boom in adult education, in turn, helps to raise the intellectual standard of the whole country.
▲Should Women Return to the Kitchen?
The traditional belief is that a women’s place is in the home and that a woman ought not to go out to work after marriage. Now once again we hear such words.
People hold the view base their argument on the two assumptions. First, since jobs now are scarce and unemployment rates higher, if women returned to the kitchen, there should be more jobs available to men. Second, the majority of female workers earn a little, only one-fifth of their male counterparts, who may earn a little more if their wives stay at home devoted wholly to children and housework.
But they fail to notice that deprived of work, most women will suffer unspeakable boredom and misery. For most women, work is not only a means of earning a living, but more important, the focus of their lives and the source of satisfaction, and the absence of work tends to exert a harmful effect on their psychological well-being. Furthermore, withdrawal from employment to complete domesticity means the loss of certain social status that women have now enjoyed after many years of struggle. It should be recognized that the current frequent occurrences of brutality, desertion and divorce are to some extent attributed to the fact that they have no say in the matter of finance.
No, women should not return to the kitchen, for we cannot afford to waste the wealth of their talent in their contribution to society and to risk losing the social status they should have.
▲On Opportunities
 Some people consider opportunity as the most important factor in their life. Without opportunity, they assume, is without success. As a result, they expect opportunity to come whole-heartedly and complain a lot in their life time about their bad luck to have few opportunities. In contrast, other people maintain the view that opportunities for one’s success is important, but not decisive. With opportunity, yet without knowledge and skill, they believe, the opportunity is doomed to slip away.
 Different as the attitudes are, opportunity is considered as an important factor that no one should neglect. It is true that opportunity can enable a person to be successful. A person with opportunity is just like a person in the darkness being given a light, which will lead him to success and glory. Missing it, on the contrary, nothing will be left but regret and disappointment. Furthermore, some opportunities are so rare and valuable that everyone should grasp and make good use of them.
 Yet it is not opportunity itself that can decide a person’s success or failure. In my opinion, opportunity is fair to every person. What really counts is not how lucky you are to come across more opportunities but how capable you are to grasp and take advantage of them to better your future. To gain this capability, one needs knowledge, skill and experience. In a word, the idea that I want to emphasize is properly conveyed by a proverb: Opportunities are only for the prepared minds.

5.5 letter writing (书信)
1. 信头(Heading )
2. 信内地址(Inside Address)
3. 称呼(Salutation)
4. 正文(body)
5. 结尾(Complimentary Close)
6. 签名(signature)
              English Department
          Beijing Foreign Studies University
                                        Beijing, 100081
                                        China,
                                        Sept, 5, 2003
Editor
Newsweek International
444 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10022
U.S.A
Dear Editor:
 I read in Newsweek (September 14) that an updated second edition of the unabridged Random House Dictionary of the English Language is being published. I would be very grateful if you could give me some information on where and how I can get a copy of the dictionary and if there is a less expensive edition than the one described.
 Thank you for any help you can give me.
                Sincerely
                Xiao Ling
5.6 writing by picture or chart, etc (图表做文)
 
1) The data /statistics/figures show that there was a minimal increase in … compared with /in relation to
2) As is shown in the table/diagram/chart/bar /pie chart/….
3) It can be seen from the …that

l 如何开头,写中间段落,如何结尾
V How to start and end the essay
怎样写开头和结尾
4.1 开头段introductory paragraph写作原则
a. 表明文章的主题 stating the topic
b. 引起读者的兴趣,使他确信值得继续阅读下去causing interest
4.2 开头段的六种写法six methods
a. ask a question
What is happiness? Different people might give different answers to this question. Some people think…, other people believe…
b. use an anecdote or brief story
Every Tuesday and Friday evening sees Miss Li, my neighbor and a secretary in a company rush home after a hard day’s work, gulp down her meals and then hurry out to catch the bus for her English class. Miss Li’s case is not unique, and now more and more city adults spend their leisure time trying to improve themselves at school or college.
c. use a quotation or proverb
I used to hear my grandmother say, “The way to a man's heart is his stomach.” I never really thought about it until last night. I gave my husband some bread I baked because he had been complaining about the preservatives in the store-bought bread. Well after an hour after he ate my fresh-baked bread he started suffering from heartburn(胃痛).
As the proverb says, “No one knows the value of health until he loses it.” In other words, nothing is more valuable than health.
d. state the supporting details
It is a fact of life that the development of science and technology has been accompanied by a decline in traditional culture. In my opinion, this is not necessarily a bad thing, because some aspects of traditional culture hamper progress and should be abandoned. Moreover, it is natural that people should want to find new ways of doing things.
e. stress the importance of the topic
With all the wealth, power, health standards, luxuries of life, and abundance of food in the United States, it might surprise most people to learn that Americans rank only sixth in the world in longevity(长寿) of life. There are many reasons for this low record but the main one has to do with America’s eating habits.
f. combination of two or methods
What are natural foods?
For many years, nutritionists have been lecturing about the deficiencies in our national diet, but the audience has been very small and little information ever filtered through to the large middle segment of our population. However, in the last two or three years, more and more people have become aware of the need for change in their nutritional patterns.
常用的句型
1) With the growing popularity of computers / private cars/ classical music in China,…
2) With the rapid growth of market economy/ private enterprises/…, supermarkets have become more and more popular. The reasons for the popularity are …
3) Currently, there is a widespread /serious concern over (illegal publication/ drug abuse/ high school dropouts)
4) In the last two decades/ In the past ten years, millions of fast food restaurants have mushroomed all over China.
5) Recently the problem /issue of … has been brought into focus…
6) Nowadays, a heated debate /discussion about …is under way in China. Some people believe that …, whereas others argue that…
7) Different people have different attitudes towards.. Some people are in favor of … while others are against…
8) There are many advantages and disadvantages in owing a private car, … We can overcome its disadvantages and fully use or develop its advantages.
9) The two major reasons responsible for the rapid economic growth are …
10) The possible solution of the energy crisis depends on three major factors…
11) Several factors must be taken into account when the problems of … are concerned
12) There is an old Chinese saying that
13) In the west there is an old saying that
14) As the saying goes, “…”
15) An old saying goes like that “…”
16) When it comes to sth(doing sth), some /many people think…
17) There is no doubt/denying that
18) We are entering a new era which calls for
19) It is out of question that the main task for students is to study. But it must also be stressed that students should get to know the world outside the campus.
4.3 结尾段落 concluding paragraph : 1. 总结全文,复述全文的主题 2. 首位呼应,再次强调主题 3。 以演绎、归纳、分析的方法得出合乎逻辑的结论
在任何情况下都要避免在结尾中提及正文中没有涉及的观点而节外生枝,同时避免结尾软弱无力。 
l 展开段落的方法
3.5.1 定义法by definition
 A “liberated woman” is simply a woman who controls her own life rather than allowing it to be controlled by other people, traditions, or expectations. A “liberated woman” can be found pursuing any line of work, including housework, or no work at all. She may or may not be married; she may or may not have borne children. She may belong to any race; she may have attained any age. She may be poor or wealthy, educated or illiterate. She need have only one trait in common with her “ liberated sisters’: she makes her own choices, whether they be the colors on her walls or the advance degrees she seeks. She acts of her own volition, responsible to herself, and not out of fear of what her mother, lover or neighbor might say.
3.5.2 分类法 by classification
 topic: There are many part-time jobs for college students who need money to help pay their bills. classification For students who enjoy talking to people, sales jobs are ideal. Sales people like to find their own customers, so they choose door-to-door sales of products ranging from beauty aids and encyclopedias to vacuum cleaners. Other people prefer working in department stores, where the customers finds them students who like being around people, but do not want to persuade them. To buy anything, might prefer clerking in a grocery or discount store. Those who enjoy providing service to the public might enjoy working in a gas station, or in a restaurant as a waitress or a waiter. Students who prefer less direct contact with the public might prefer office jobs as secretaries, file clerks, or bookkeepers. And those who like to keep their surroundings clean and neat might find that being dishwashers, stockroom persons, or janitors fills their needs for both money and job satisfaction.
3.5.3 举例法by examples
 topic sentence Perhaps the most interesting person I have ever met is an Italian professor of philosophy who teaches at the University of Pisa. Although I last met this man eight years ago. I have not forgotten the qualities that make him one of my favorite people. Details First of all, I was impressed by his devotion of teaching. Because his lectures were always will-prepared and clearly delivered, students swarmed into what he taught and that he was intellectually stimulating. Furthermore, he could be counted on to explain his ideas in an imaginative way, in reducing such aids to understanding as paintings, recordings, pieces of sculpture, and the guest lectures. Once he even sang a song in class to illustrate a point. Second, I admired the fact that he would confer with students outside of the classroom or talk with them on the telephone. Drinking coffee in the snack bar, he would easily make friends with students. Some times he would challenge a student to a game of chess. At other times, he would join groups to discuss subjects ranging from astronomy to diving. Many young people visited him in his office for academic advice; others came to his home for social event. Finally, I was attracted by his lively wit. He believed that no class hour is a success unless the students and the professor share several chuckles and at least one loud laugh. Through his sense of humor, he made leering more enjoyable and more lasting. If it is true that life makes a wise man smile and a foolish man cry. Then my friend is truly a wise man.
3.5.4 列举法 by details
 topic:  The idea of marriage as a way of life has changed recently in the United States. Details: First, not everyone tries to get married. Some people decide that they would rather live alone. Second, many people get married, and them find that they are not happy. Sometimes, these people end their marriages. They get a divorce to end the marriage. The number of divorces in the United States has increased in recent years. Marriage has changed in another way. Many people get married, but their marriages are very different from the traditional marriage relationships. The difference in the relationship is the result of different roles played by each spouse.  
3.5.5 因果法 by cause and effect
 (topic sentence:)Many American women are more active in sports now than ever before. (Causes:) This is the result of the developments in sports and in modern society. It is also the result of the women’s Liberation Movement in the United States. In particular, three groups of women are active in sports. Some women are sports professionals. These are women who participate in sports to earn money. Some women play in tennis matches or golf matches and if they win, they usually win a substantial amount of money. College women are a second group who are active in sports. Some of these women take a sport as part of their academic program. Most women in this third group are those who play a game of sport because they like it. They have fun playing it. Perhaps the largest number of women who have recently become active in sports are in this amateur group. Many of these women may have learned the sports in college, also.
3.5.6 对比和比较法 by comparison and contrast
 topic sentence Life in my hometown in quite different today from it was a few years ago. Many changes have taken place. Comparison details In just a few years my hometown has been transformed from a small country village where everyone know each other to a large suburban community where people who rush home each evening from nearby offices of factories barely have time to get acquainted. Just a few years ago the children there walked to one small school through apple orchards. Now they go to several schools either by bus or by bike. My hometown used to be a quiet, rural town. Now it is bustling and flourishing. Buses, trucks as well as tractors come and go busily. Low and dark houses have been replaced by big and clean buildings with shining windows. The small town cinema and some old shops have given way to new ones. The two-lane road through town has moved aside for a wide new freeway. There are few old timers left in my hometown who probably wonder whether all the changes that have taken place rightly deserve to be called progress, but most of the people are caught up in the new life and are quite satisfied with it.

l 怎样写好段落
3.1 段落的主题句
Ø 主题句语法正确
Ø 主题句概括性与具体性的统一
Ø 主题句包含表达主导思想的词语或词组
3.2 段落的层次结构
1 (topic sentence) While there is a great deal of enthusiasm nowadays over the advantages of Internet, its drawbacks should not be neglected. 2 For one thing, the construction links to the system requires a huge amount of investment, which can be a strain of the budget of a developing country. 2 For another, not all the information available on the Internet is either useful or harmless; subversive and pornographic items can infiltrate the messages downloaded by people unfamiliar with the “web”.
1 First of all, advances in science and technology have certainly brought about many benefits for mankind. 2 They have made out lives more comfortable and healthier. 2 In addition, they have eased the burden of work for most people and provided them with more leisure opportunities, while at the same time increasing productivity dramatically.
There are both similarities and differences between the tourist-attracting countries Italy and Greece. Both the Italians and Greeks are friendly, gregarious people. The antiquities of both countries are fascinating, Rome’s Colosseum and Athen’s Parthenon are two of the world’s great sights. Both countries offer comfortable tourist accommodations. The luxury hotels in Rome and Athens are excellent. There are important contrasts between Italy and Greece. Dining in Italy can be a memorable experience. Food in Greece tends to be wholesome but plain. And the look of each country is different. The Italian countryside is green and lush. The Greek terrain is dry and desertlike. Different from the elegant Italian signor or signora, the Greek citizen dresses and lives more simply. With these differences, though, a tourist can expect a delightful holiday in either country.
3.3 段落的统一性(unity)和段落的连贯性(coherence)
3.3.1段落的统一性是指构成段落的句子要互相关联, 共同表达一致的信息, 从而把读者的注意力集中在中心观点上。
 原文:Susan ‘s parents don’t understand her. Her college teachers say she is “unmotivated” and she is not interested in studying. She doesn’t perform well in the basic, required college courses, and she says they are boring. Teachers give her poor grades in some courses, and these are the ones she has to take, and her parents consider her a nonachiever in everything. Their daughter likes working with her hands, and she is always building tables and bookshelves. She would rather be working in a carpentry shop, and her parents urge her to stay in school, and they want her to be a lawyer. This is not a happy young woman.
 修改后:Susan ‘s parents don’t understand their unmotivated daughter who is not interested in studying.  Susan doesn’t perform well in required college courses because she finds them boring. When teachers give her poor grades in the courses she has to take, her parents consider her a non-achiever in everything. The daughter likes working with her hands, always building tables and bookshelves. Although she would rather be working in a carpentry shop, her parents urge her to stay in school because they want her to be a lawyer. She is not a very happy young woman.
 Collecting stamps is her hobby. Nearly every day she would go to the post office, and return with some stamps, which she would carefully arrange in her albums. These albums were yellow, blue and red. She had bought some of them in Beijing, some of them in Shanghai, and she got the most expensive one from her father, who visited the United States as a visiting scholar for two years. He was an outstanding scientist. She would keep some rare stamps in her jewelry box, and appreciate them whenever she has time.
3.3.2段落的连贯性是指把段落合乎逻辑的按一定的顺序展开。 连贯性与统一性是相辅相成的,否则句子随意的堆积就会像一盘散沙,无法表达作者的观点和段落的中心。是段落具有连贯性的方法有两种,一是合乎逻辑的组织安排;二是尽可能的采用一些过渡的照应。
A. 时间顺序
From the beginning of our lives, we are social. We live with other people and we depend on them. A baby’s first social relationships are with his parents. Then his sphere of acquaintance broadens, and he forms relationships with people his own age. At maturity, a dominant aspect of his social life is his relationship to the members of opposite sex. Each of these relationships serves to form and to satisfy powerful social motives.
B. 地点顺序
C. 强调的顺序 先写次要的,后写主要的,把最重要的放在最后写,是英语作文的一个特征。
强调的部分置于句末;把次要成分充当定语或状语
When William Holmes Mcguffey was appointed president of Ohio University in 1839, he was six days short of his thirty-ninth birthday. But already he was far more serious and already he had acquired far more academic honors than most men twice his age. He had been teaching professionally since he was twelve. He had tutored and reared a younger brother. He had taught at Miami University and served as president of Cincinnati College. And he had written the incredibly popular Mc Guffey Eclectic Readers, which eventually were to become the nation’s number 2 best-seller, only after the Bible itself.
Modern woodburners about eighty percent efficient, compared with the thirty percent track record of earlier woodburners and the fifteen percent efficiency of the notorious open fireplace. Today’s woodburner is basically a double-walled with controllable combustion air inlets to let in only the minimum amount of air needed to keep the wood burning efficiently.
D. 因果顺序
Most people become less active as they grow older, and, although your body will require less food, you will probably continue to eat the same amount as you did when younger. As a result, your body will lose its shape and efficiency. You must determine to eat less and to be more active.
 Some people feel very nervous when they fly in airplanes. No matter how hard they try, they cannot lower their anxiety. Some of them enjoy talking about their fears while others resent being asked to discuss their personal feelings. Many are aware that they feel anxious but only a few are conscious of the way they express their tension. Some people try to hide their nervousness; they try to disguise their anxiety by telling jokes. Others become loud and aggressive, attacking people by making them the butt of cruel jokes.
3.4 段落中句子过渡与照应的方法
3.4.1 围绕中心处理观点
 原文:Daily jogging is one of the best exercise you can do for your body. Both your muscle tone and your cardiovascular system can be developed, ensuring that your heart and lungs are in prime condition, and preventing you from gaining unneeded weight since a great many calories are also burned off. No matter what your age, to keep yourself in excellent physical condition is important.
 修改之后:Daily jogging is one of the best exercise you can do for your body. It develops muscle tone and lungs in prime condition. It burns off a great many calories, preventing you from gaining unneeded weight. Yes, nothing beats jogging for keeping you in excellent physical condition, no matter what your age.
3.4.2 重复重点词
 There are about 50,000 entries in a Chinese dictionary not counting the compounds. In order to be literate, a Chinese must learn 6,000; to be moderately educated, 12,000. An English-speaking child, having to conquer only a twenty-six letter alphabet, has usually learned to read by the time he begins the third grade. A Chinese child needs at least five more years of elementary learning; in the seventh grade, he can barely read a Chinese newspaper.
3.4.3 使用代词
 The sea is the largest unknown part of our world. It covers seventy-one percent of the earth. There is still much to be discovered about this vast blanket of water. Luckily, no single nation has the task of learning all we need to know about the ocean. The world sea is owned by no one; it surrounds the earth and belongs to us all. Scientists in many different countries are working to explain its mysteries.
 Marco Polo traveled to China with his father and uncle. While Marco Polo was visiting the country, Marco Polo became an agent of the great leader Kublai Khan and served in the capacity of emissary of several years. When Marco Polo announced his intentions to return to Venice, the great Khan rewarded him with expensive gifts.
3.4.4 运用过渡连接词
 He had reached a stage in life. He would have to make decisions. He had put off making any decisions concerning his future. He could no longer procrastinate. Everyone said that he was an adult. He would have to decide on his life’s work. He didn’t feel like an adult. He felt confused and angry at the pressures being placed on him. Perhaps he could wait until the summer.
 He had reached a stage in life when he would have to make decision. In the past, he had put off making any decisions concerning his future. Now, he could no longer procrastinate. Everyone said that he was an adult and as an adult he would have to decide on his life’s work. However, he didn’t feel like an adult. He felt confused and angry at the pressures being placed on him. Perhaps he could wait until after the summer.
 It is a fact of life that the development of science and technology has been accompanied by a decline in traditional culture. In my opinion, this is not necessarily a bad thing, because some aspects of traditional culture hamper progress and should be abandoned. Moreover, it is natural that people should want to find new ways of doing things.
 In the first place, science and technology have cleared up many matters that were mysterious to us in the past. For instance, we now know that thunder and lightening are not caused by gods being angry, but are normal natural phenomena. As a result, a large number of harmful superstition have disappeared, and nobody regrets their passing.
 In the second place, our everyday lives have been made more convenient by scientific and technological inventions. Nowadays electric lights have replaced the traditional oil lamps, and computers enable us to make quicker and more accurate calculations. Even more important is the fact that television brings the family together in the evening.
 In the third place, science and technology actually help to preserve the useful and pleasant parts of traditional culture. Take the celebration of the Chinese Lantern Festival for example. Lanterns are now designed with modern technology and materials to make them more attractive, and they are powered by electricity, which is safer than candles.
 Therefore, for the above reasons, I welcome the development of science and technology. Advances in science and technology have brought us many benefits. At the same time, they have eliminated the bad parts of traditional culture while preserving the good parts.
常用过渡性词语
顺序号 firstly, initially, secondly, to begin with, then, next, earlier/later, after this/that, following this/that, afterwards
附加 in addition, and, similarly, likewise, as well as, besides, furthermore, also, moreover, and then, too, not only…but also, even, besides this/that
结果 as a result, thus, so, therefore, consequently, it follows that, thereby, eventually, then, in that case, …contributes to …, …will lead to / result in /bring about/…
对比 however, on the other hand, despite, in spite of, though, although, on the contrary, otherwise, yet, instead of, rather, whereas, nonetheless, even though, compared with, in contrast, alternatively; for all;
For all the disadvantages,… has its compensating advantages.
举例 for example, for instance, namely, in this case, to illustrate, in particular, a case in point is ..to name just a few; this can be shown by the following examples…; For one thing, for another;
肯定 obviously, certainly, plainly, of course, undoubtedly
条件 if unless, whether, provided that, for, so that, whether, depending on
理由 partly because… partly because…since, as so because, due to, owing to , in other words, leads to, cause, …involve many factors…the reasons for/ why … are as follows; another contributory reason for …is…
时间 before, since, as, until, meanwhile, at the moment, when, whenever, as soon as, just as
总结 in conclusion, in summary, lastly, finally, to sum up, to conclude, to recapitulate, in short, in a word, in brief 
Proverbs:
13. The course of reform is full of downs and ups.
14. Love me, love my dogs.
15. Never judge by appearance.
16. Prevention is better than cure.
17. Constant dropping will wear away a stone.
18. One tree does not make a wood.
19. Every coin has its two sides. (Everything cuts both ways.)
20. Bitter pills may have slight negligence may cause great disaster. (千里之堤,溃于蚁穴)
21. One cannot make bricks without straw.
22. Practise what you preach.
23. Facts speak louder than words.
24. Whatever gains in one respect loses in another.
    Idioms
1) Pay the price
2) under way
3) a curse or a bless
4) vicious circle
5) take for granted
6) afford to do
7) be available for
8) instead of
9) be indispensable to
10) This is true of
11) to some extent
12) range from…to ….
13) vary from …to…
14) in many aspects
15) comparatively speaking